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P. 61, LL LL. 3032. "the Tasmanian devil ": "the Tasmanian devil ": Barbara Triggs, Barbara Triggs, Tracks, Scats and Other Traces: A Field Guide to Australian Mammals Tracks, Scats and Other Traces: A Field Guide to Australian Mammals (South Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 52. (South Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 52.

P. 63, LL LL. 57. "For many people who visit": Triggs, Triggs, Tracks Tracks, p. v. This quote is from the book's foreword by Hugh Tyndale-Biscoe.

7. tHe RO ROaD t tO t tIgeRVILLe P. 74, LL LL. 824. The recent sighting: The recent sighting: Nick Mooney, "Tasmanian Tiger Sighting Casts Marsupial in New Light," Nick Mooney, "Tasmanian Tiger Sighting Casts Marsupial in New Light," Australian Natural History Australian Natural History, vol. 21, no. 5 (Winter 1984), pp. 177180. Used by permission of Nick Mooney. In 2004, Nick Mooney reflected on the intensive search for the thylacine following Hans Naarding's reported sighting in 1982: In retrospect, the search was as thorough as the available technology and resources allowed, especially considering we chose to be discreet. Carnivores make extensive use of the area's many vehicle tracks which were muddy for months at a time, legitimizing the focus on such sites.

But an almost inescapable problem in finding footprints was the abundance of Tasmanian devils. This "omnipresent" species uses tracks and roads and is attracted to all manner of carnivore lures, following scent trails and quickly devouring carcasses. In these circumstances, the odd thylacine print or scat could easily be overlooked, distorted, or obliterated by devil (and wallaby) "noise." (Nowadays we would make extensive use of DNA scat analysis and the much better automatic digital cameras.) Devils are still abundant in the area but this might not last for long. An epidemic is devastating devil numbers and is likely to eventually turn up in the Northwest. This Devil Facial Tumor Disease might make conditions ideal for the recovery of any remaining thylacines, both drastically reducing competition for food and dens and likely predation on thylacine pups. (I'm sure devils had a hand in making thylacines "functionally" if not biologically extinct: as thylacines got rare, devils became more common, and what was incidental predation of the odd pup may have become critical and unsustainable.) Ironically this disease may be the ultimate test of thylacines' extantion or extinction; a test I would much prefer never happened. Devils are every bit (if not more) the fantastic animal thylacines were, and the thought of losing them too fills me with dread.

An adjunct is that in wilderness areas we are using automatic digital cameras to assess devil populations-who knows what we might turn up.



The inland Arthur River area has changed dramatically in the past twenty years. Most of the complex eucalypt forests there in 1982 have been or are being felled and replaced by plantations, and the swamp forests are being cleared for agriculture. The consequent new roads and increased traffic have not produced anything of the quality of Hans's report, in fact almost nothing. The area was never ideal thylacine habitat, so it is possible the changes in the last twenty years were enough to tip the scales. However, there still remains much potential prey and I find it hard to believe thylacines could not persist in this landscape. I suspect, at best I was right and thylacines are not resident in the area. Or worse, I was wrong and they are simply not there-or worse still, not anywhere.

It is seventy-one years since there has been indisputable evidence of living wild thylacines and sixty-eight since any at all. There have been many searches, some unknown to the public and of excellent quality in what we think are the "best" areas. Sadly, all have come to nothing.

We are now battling a few foxes in Tasmania, a species that the devils' demise might allow to dominate the vertebrate landscape here forever. However, even a well-known species such as the red fox, if very rare, is extremely difficult to find by searching; it seems the rarer an animal the more luck plays in the finding. To me this somewhat humbling experience makes the thylacine question a little worth revisiting. If nothing else, it demonstrates how homocentric we have become in our assumptions that "if it's there, of course we can find it." Let's hope there is still time for us to get lucky.

9. HO HOppINg P. 95, LL LL. 2425. "The wombat is a Joy": "The wombat is a Joy": William Michael Rossetti, William Michael Rossetti, Dante Gabriel Rossetti: His Family-Letters with a Memoir, Volume II Dante Gabriel Rossetti: His Family-Letters with a Memoir, Volume II (New York: AMS Press, 1970), p. 220. Originally published in 1895, this collection of more than three hundred letters is reproduced electronically in "The Complete Writings and Pictures of Dante Gabriel Rossetti: A Hypermedia Research Archive" at (New York: AMS Press, 1970), p. 220. Originally published in 1895, this collection of more than three hundred letters is reproduced electronically in "The Complete Writings and Pictures of Dante Gabriel Rossetti: A Hypermedia Research Archive" at www.iath.virginia.edu/rossetti/. This online archive is published by the Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities at the University of Virginia.

P. 95, LL LL. 3134. I never reared a young Wombat: I never reared a young Wombat: Dante Gabriel Rossetti, pen and ink drawing in the collection of the British Museum, November 6, 1869. The drawing/poem combination is reproduced electronically in "The Complete Writings and Pictures of Dante Gabriel Rossetti" at Dante Gabriel Rossetti, pen and ink drawing in the collection of the British Museum, November 6, 1869. The drawing/poem combination is reproduced electronically in "The Complete Writings and Pictures of Dante Gabriel Rossetti" at www.iath.virginia.edu/rossetti/.

11. SUICID SUICIDe H HeN P. 115, LL LL. 815. From Smithton to Marrawah: From Smithton to Marrawah: Bernard Cronin, "The Way to Marrawah," Bernard Cronin, "The Way to Marrawah," Bulletin Bulletin, March 15, 1917.

13. a tigeR HUN HUNteR PP. 14243, LL LL. 3234 and LL LL. 118. REPORT BY JAMES MALLEY: "The Report of the Search for the Thylacine that was conducted by Jeremy Griffith, James Malley, and Robert Brown" dated December 17, 1972, p. 16. [Unpublished.] Used by permission of James Malley.

15. LISteNINg fOR t tIgeRS P. 155, LL LL. 1116. Indeed, in neither its broad outline: Indeed, in neither its broad outline: Michael Sharland, Michael Sharland, Tasmanian Wild Life Tasmanian Wild Life (Parkville, Australia: Melbourne University Press, 1962), p. 22. (Parkville, Australia: Melbourne University Press, 1962), p. 22.

P. 155, LL LL. 3032. "mainly nocturnal ": "mainly nocturnal ": Dave Watts, Dave Watts, Tasmanian Mammals: A Field Guide Tasmanian Mammals: A Field Guide (Kettering, Tasmania: Peregrine Press, 2002), p. 32. (Kettering, Tasmania: Peregrine Press, 2002), p. 32.

P. 156, LL LL. 3435. "making a curious yapping": "making a curious yapping": Sharland, Sharland, Tasmanian Wild Life Tasmanian Wild Life, p. 10.

P. 158, LL LL. 2325. "is probably extinct": "is probably extinct": Triggs, Triggs, Tracks Tracks, p. 49.

16. 1-300-fOX-OUt P. 165, LL LL. 23. "kookaburra sits": "kookaburra sits": Marion Sinclair, "Kookaburra" song (Larrikin Music Publishing, 1936). Marion Sinclair, "Kookaburra" song (Larrikin Music Publishing, 1936).

17. tHe R ReD f fOg P. 182, LL LL. 1215. J. E. Kinnear, "Eradicating the Fox in Tasmania: A Review of the Fox Free Tasmania Program" (March 2003).

22. mytHICaL CR CReatURes PP. 22223, LL LL. 138 and LL LL. 120. Palana, the little star: Palana, the little star: Jackson Cotton, Jackson Cotton, Touch the Morning: Tasmanian Native Legends Touch the Morning: Tasmanian Native Legends (Hobart, Tasmania: O.B.M., 1979), pp. 1718. Used with permission from Jane Cooper. (Hobart, Tasmania: O.B.M., 1979), pp. 1718. Used with permission from Jane Cooper.

P. 225, LL LL. 611. Tasmanian aboriginal legend of the platypus: Tasmanian aboriginal legend of the platypus: Cotton, Cotton, Touch the Morning Touch the Morning, pp. 4546.

24. B BLOOD a aND S SLOPS P. 237, LL LL. 1824. An exceptionally large proportion: An exceptionally large proportion: Steven J. Smith, "The Tasmanian Tiger-1980: A report on an investigation of the current status of thylacine Steven J. Smith, "The Tasmanian Tiger-1980: A report on an investigation of the current status of thylacine Thylacinus cynocephalus Thylacinus cynocephalus " (National Parks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania, May 1981), p. 97. " (National Parks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania, May 1981), p. 97.

P. 238, LL LL. 1013. Sideling Aboretum: Sideling Aboretum: public sign posted by Forestry Tasmania. public sign posted by Forestry Tasmania.

P. 241, LL LL. 2327. What I viewed for two minutes: What I viewed for two minutes: James Woodford, "New Bush Sighting Puts Tiger Hunter Back in Business," James Woodford, "New Bush Sighting Puts Tiger Hunter Back in Business," Sydney Morning Herald Sydney Morning Herald, January 30, 1995.

25. B BeaCHes aND B Beasts P. 249, LL LL. 315. A vast pulpy mass: A vast pulpy mass: Herman Melville, Herman Melville, Moby-Dick or, The Whale Moby-Dick or, The Whale (New York: Modern Library, 2000), pp. 401402. (New York: Modern Library, 2000), pp. 401402.

P. 249, LL LL. 1619. The first known sighting: The first known sighting: Richard Ellis, Richard Ellis, The Search for the Giant Squid: The Biology and Mythology of the World's Most Elusive Sea Creature The Search for the Giant Squid: The Biology and Mythology of the World's Most Elusive Sea Creature (New York: Penguin Books, 1999), p. 257. (New York: Penguin Books, 1999), p. 257.

P. 252, LL LL. 1014. Last known thylacine died: Last known thylacine died: Tasmanian Museum exhibit film. Tasmanian Museum exhibit film.

PP. 25556, LL LL. 3236 and LL LL. 116. It was our business to squeeze: It was our business to squeeze: Melville, Melville, Moby-Dick Moby-Dick, pp. 600601.

26. IN IN t tHe N Name O Of geORge pRIDeaUX H HaRRIS P. 259, LL LL. 2126. Another day I ascended: Another day I ascended: Charles Darwin, Charles Darwin, The Voyage of the Beagle: Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited During the Voyage of H.M.S. The Voyage of the Beagle: Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited During the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle Beagle Round the World Round the World (New York: Modern Library, 2001), p. 400. (New York: Modern Library, 2001), p. 400.

P. 260, LL LL. 48. In some of the dampest ravines: In some of the dampest ravines: Charles Darwin, Charles Darwin, The Voyage of the Beagle The Voyage of the Beagle, pp. 400401.

P. 262, LL LL. 2025. We know kangaroos: We know kangaroos: Barbara Hamilton-Arnold (ed.), Barbara Hamilton-Arnold (ed.), Letters and Papers of G. Letters and Papers of G.P. Harris, 18031812: Deputy Surveyor-General of New South Wales at Sullivan Bay, Port Phillip and Hobart Town, Van Diemen's Land (Sorento, Australia: Arden Press, 1994), p. 59. The letters of G. (Sorento, Australia: Arden Press, 1994), p. 59. The letters of G. P P. Harris are held in the Manuscript Collection of the British Library, London (Mss Add 41556 & 45157).

P. 263, LL LL. 34. the most beautiful: the most beautiful: Hamilton-Arnold, Hamilton-Arnold, Letters and Papers of G.P. Harris Letters and Papers of G.P. Harris, p. 61.

LL. 1415. This land is cursed: This land is cursed: This quote is commonly attributed to This quote is commonly attributed to Dirk [Dirck] Hartog, a Dutch explorer and the first European to land in Australia.

LL. 2024. "Black Swans ": "Black Swans ": Hamilton-Arnold, Hamilton-Arnold, Letters and Papers of G.P. Harris Letters and Papers of G.P. Harris, p. 61.

LL. 2835. The hills and sides: The hills and sides: Hamilton-Arnold, Hamilton-Arnold, Letters and Papers of G. Letters and Papers of G.P. Harris, p. 66.

P. 264, LL LL. 914. My dearest mother: My dearest mother: Hamilton-Arnold, Hamilton-Arnold, Letters and Papers of G. Letters and Papers of G.P. Harris, p. 72.

P. 265, LL LL. 1622. I take the liberty: I take the liberty: Hamilton-Arnold, Hamilton-Arnold, Letters and Papers of G. Letters and Papers of G.P. Harris, p. 89.

LL. 3134. " That from which this description": " That from which this description": Hamilton-Arnold, Hamilton-Arnold, Letters and Papers of G. Letters and Papers of G.P. Harris, p. 90.

P. 266, LL LL. 1217. The history of this new: The history of this new: Hamilton-Arnold, Hamilton-Arnold, Letters and Papers of G. Letters and Papers of G.P. Harris, pp. 9092.

LL. 2026. These animals: These animals: Hamilton-Arnold, Hamilton-Arnold, Letters and Papers of G. Letters and Papers of G.P. Harris, pp. 9293.

27. S SeNatOR t tHyLaCINe P. 276, LL LL. 2932. The Native Tigers: The Native Tigers: Eric Guiler and Philippe Godard, Eric Guiler and Philippe Godard, Tasmanian Tiger, A Lesson to Be Learnt Tasmanian Tiger, A Lesson to Be Learnt (Perth, Western Australia: Abrolhos Publishing, 1998), p. 123. A photograph of the original 1885 petition is reproduced in (Perth, Western Australia: Abrolhos Publishing, 1998), p. 123. A photograph of the original 1885 petition is reproduced in Tasmanian Tiger. Tasmanian Tiger.

P. 277, LL LL. 2530. is extremely rare: is extremely rare: T. Thomson Flynn, "The Mammalian Fauna of Tasmania," T. Thomson Flynn, "The Mammalian Fauna of Tasmania," Tasmania Handbook Tasmania Handbook (British Association for the Advancement of Science, Australian Meeting, 1914), p. 53. (British Association for the Advancement of Science, Australian Meeting, 1914), p. 53.

L. 31. "tall hunk of scholarship": "tall hunk of scholarship": Errol Flynn, Errol Flynn, My Wicked, Wicked Ways My Wicked, Wicked Ways (Cutchogue, New York: Buccaneer Books, 1978), p. 19. (Cutchogue, New York: Buccaneer Books, 1978), p. 19.

P. 278, LL LL. 3436. The river through the valley: The river through the valley: Bob Brown, Bob Brown, The Valley of the Giants The Valley of the Giants (Hobart, Tasmania: Bob Brown, 2001), p. 26. (Hobart, Tasmania: Bob Brown, 2001), p. 26.

28. fLaILINg IN IN t tHe styX P. 283, LL LL. 810. Look up!: Look up!: public sign posted by Forestry Tasmania. public sign posted by Forestry Tasmania. LL LL. 2633. A single 70 meter: A single 70 meter: public sign posted by Forestry Tasmania. public sign posted by Forestry Tasmania.

P. 284, LL LL. 1314. "You're the one that I want ": "You're the one that I want ": lyrics from lyrics from Grease Grease soundtrack, words by John Farrar. soundtrack, words by John Farrar.

29. CR CRyptID P. 297, LL LL. 1617. a large hairy creature: a large hairy creature: Loren Coleman and Jerome Clark, Loren Coleman and Jerome Clark, Cryptozoology A to Z: The Encyclopedia of Loch Monsters, Sasquatch, Chupacabras, and Other Authentic Mysteries of Nature Cryptozoology A to Z: The Encyclopedia of Loch Monsters, Sasquatch, Chupacabras, and Other Authentic Mysteries of Nature (New York: Fireside, 1999), p. 50. (New York: Fireside, 1999), p. 50.

SUGGESTED READING AND VIEWINGNONfICtIONBailey, Col. Tiger Tales: Stories of the Tasmanian Tiger. Tiger Tales: Stories of the Tasmanian Tiger. Sydney, Australia: HarperCollins, 2001. Sydney, Australia: HarperCollins, 2001.Flannery, Timothy Fridtjof. The Future Eaters: An Ecological History of the Australasian Lands and People. The Future Eaters: An Ecological History of the Australasian Lands and People. New York: George Braziller, 1995. New York: George Braziller, 1995.Guiler, Eric, and Philippe Godard. Tasmanian Tiger, A Lesson to Be Learnt. Tasmanian Tiger, A Lesson to Be Learnt. Perth, Western Australia: Abrolhos Publishing, 1998. Perth, Western Australia: Abrolhos Publishing, 1998.Hamilton-Arnold, Barbara (ed.). Letters and Papers of G.P. Harris, 18031812: Deputy Surveyor-General of New South Wales at Sullivan Bay, Port Phillip and Hobart Town, Van Diemen's Land. Letters and Papers of G.P. Harris, 18031812: Deputy Surveyor-General of New South Wales at Sullivan Bay, Port Phillip and Hobart Town, Van Diemen's Land. Sorento, Australia: Arden Press, 1994. Sorento, Australia: Arden Press, 1994.Hay, Ashley. Gum. Gum. Potts Point, Australia: Duffy & Snellgrove, 2002. Potts Point, Australia: Duffy & Snellgrove, 2002.Hughes, Robert. The Fatal Shore: The Epic of Australia's Founding. The Fatal Shore: The Epic of Australia's Founding. New York: Vintage Books, 1986. New York: Vintage Books, 1986.Launceston Field Naturalists Club. A Guide to Flowers and Plants of Tasmania. A Guide to Flowers and Plants of Tasmania. Sydney: Reed New Holland, 2000. Sydney: Reed New Holland, 2000.Low, Tim. The New Nature: Winners and Losers in Wild Australia. The New Nature: Winners and Losers in Wild Australia. Camberwell, Australia: Viking, 2002. Camberwell, Australia: Viking, 2002.Low, Tim. Feral Future: The Untold Story of Australia's Exotic Invaders. Feral Future: The Untold Story of Australia's Exotic Invaders. University of Chicago Press, 2002. University of Chicago Press, 2002.Owen, David. Tasmanian Tiger: The Tragic Tale of How the World Lost Its Most Mysterious Predator. Tasmanian Tiger: The Tragic Tale of How the World Lost Its Most Mysterious Predator. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.Paddle, Robert. The Last Tasmanian Tiger: The History and Extinction of the Thylacine. The Last Tasmanian Tiger: The History and Extinction of the Thylacine. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2000.Quammen, David. The Song of the Dodo: Island Biogeography in an Age of Extinctions. The Song of the Dodo: Island Biogeography in an Age of Extinctions. New York: Scribner, 1996. New York: Scribner, 1996.Triggs, Barbara. Tracks, Scats and Other Traces: A Field Guide to Australian Mammals. Tracks, Scats and Other Traces: A Field Guide to Australian Mammals. South Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press, 1996. South Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press, 1996.Watts, Dave. Field Guide to Tasmanian Birds. Field Guide to Tasmanian Birds. Sydney: New Holland Publishers, 1999. Sydney: New Holland Publishers, 1999.Watts, Dave. Tasmanian Mammals: A Field Guide. Tasmanian Mammals: A Field Guide. Kettering, Tasmania: Peregrine Press, 2002. Kettering, Tasmania: Peregrine Press, 2002.Weidensaul, Scott. The Ghost with Trembling Wings: Science, Wishful Thinking, and the Search for Lost Species. The Ghost with Trembling Wings: Science, Wishful Thinking, and the Search for Lost Species. New York: North Point Press, 2002. New York: North Point Press, 2002.Woodford, James. The Secret Life of Wombats. The Secret Life of Wombats. Melbourne: Text Publishing, 2001. Melbourne: Text Publishing, 2001.fICtIONFlanagan, Richard. Death of a River Guide. Death of a River Guide. New York: Grove Press, 1994. New York: Grove Press, 1994.Flanagan, Richard. Gould's Book of Fish: A Novel in Twelve Fish. Gould's Book of Fish: A Novel in Twelve Fish. New York: Grove Press, 2001. New York: Grove Press, 2001.Kneale, Matthew. English Passengers. English Passengers. New York: Anchor Books, 2000. New York: Anchor Books, 2000.Leigh, Julia. The Hunter. The Hunter. Ringwood, Australia: Penguin, 1999. Ringwood, Australia: Penguin, 1999.VIDeOThe End of Extinction: Cloning the Tasmanian Tiger. Discovery Communications, 2002. Discovery Communications, 2002.Howling III: The Marsupials, written and directed by Philippe Mora. Bancannia Pictures, 1987. [Comic horror flick featuring were-thylacines.]WeBSIteCampbell, C. "The Thylacine Museum." www.naturalworlds.org/thylacine/.

MARGARET M MITTELBACH and M and MICHAEL C CREWDSON (right) regularly join forces for (right) regularly join forces for The New York Times The New York Times and other publications, revealing nature in the strangest of places. Their previous book, and other publications, revealing nature in the strangest of places. Their previous book, Wild New York Wild New York, uncovered the unsung natural wonders of the city that never sleeps. They live in Brooklyn, New York, and give frequent talks and lectures on nature.ALEXIS R ROCKMAN's artwork examines the history of how nature is portrayed and is in the collections of the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Guggenheim Museum, the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles, the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and London's Saatchi Collection. He and his work have been featured in The New Yorker, Vanity Fair, The New York Times, Travel The New Yorker, Vanity Fair, The New York Times, Travel + + Leisure, Discover Leisure, Discover, and Natural History. Natural History. He has also contributed artwork to several books including He has also contributed artwork to several books including Future Evolution Future Evolution, by Peter Ward, a prediction of the future of the global ecosystem. He lives and works in New York and has traveled around the world experiencing the wild firsthand.

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